Malcolm X born Malcolm Little, latter Malik el-Shabazz; May 19, 1925, was an African-American Muslim minister and human rights activist who was a prominent figure during the civil rights movement.
He was the spokesman for the Islamic nations until 1964, he was a vocal advocate for Black empowerment and for the promotion of Islam within the Black community.
Malcolm spent his early life living in series of Foster homes or with his father’s relatives after the death of his father and his mother’s hospitalisation.
He got himself involved in many illegal activities, causing him to be sentenced to 10 years in prison in 1946 for latency, breaking and entering.
It was in the prison that he joined the Nation of Islam and he chose the name Malcolm X to indicate or differentiate him from his ancestral African surname and removing the white slavemaster’s name ‘Little’.
Malcolm became the public face of the Nation of Islam organization for many years, and he was advocating for Black empowerment and separation of Black and white Americans, he also criticised Martin Luther King Jr. and the mainstream civil rights movement for its emphasis on nonviolence and racial integration.
In the year 1960s, Malcolm X started growing disillusioned with the Nation of Islam and the leader, Elijah Muhammad. He later joined Sunni Islam and the civil rights movement after completing the Hajj to Mecca, and he became known as ‘el-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz’.
He decided to tour around Africa, after a brief period of his tour, he publicly renounced the Nation of Islam and he founded the Islamic Muslim Mosque Inc. (MMI) and the Pan-African Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU).
Throughout the year of 1964, his conflict with the Nation of Islam increased, and he was sent death threats a number of times. On February 21, 1965, he was assassinated in New York City. The of the Nation members were convicted for the murder with indeterminate life sentences; in 2021, two of the convictions were vacated.